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The end game for the big public cloud providers (AWS, Azure, Google) is 100% pure public cloud. Their goal is to completely take over all on-premise software and infrastructure deployments.
So why do we continue to hear “the future is hybrid cloud”, combining the best of on-premise with the best of public cloud? Let’s examine some of the arguments.
Myth 1: Key components can be kept on-prem in a more secure environment, alongside public cloud usage #
Premise: keep key databases/intellectual property/secret sauce/competitive advantage on premise whilst using public cloud for everything else.
- You are able to provide better physical security in your own facility or a
colo facility provided by a generic data centre provider than the public
You may be impressed by that data centre tour with the key card access and mantrap doors but what about staff vetting, 3rd party audits, staff access control, storage media destruction, change management, security training, and regular penetration testing? These are all standard practice at AWS.
- You are able to provide better software level security for all endpoints,
including monitoring and incident response for infrastructure level
components than the public cloud provider.
Google has a team of over 500 security experts constantly working on vulnerability management, response, research, monitoring and mitigation. How many do you have in your security team?
- The connection between your public cloud environment and your on-prem
environment is immune to attacks.
Multiple vulnerabilities in VPN software means that direct connect product you’re using to hook up your on-prem environment to the public cloud may well be the easiest way in.
- You care less about the environment hosted in the public cloud because you
necessarily expect lower security there.
Even meta data has value, so what kind of data are you putting into the public cloud that doesn’t matter if it gets stolen?
- Any security breach in the public cloud will not affect your on-premise
If the public cloud provider suffers a breach then any attacker can use your direct link into your on-prem environment. And if it’s your own config/software that is breached, are you sure that vulnerability doesn’t exist on-prem too?
The real response to each of the above reasons should be: why should we invest in this when we can rely on the public cloud experts to get this right for us? It’s core to their business, should it be core to ours?
Using a public cloud provider means you can leverage all their investment in security all the way up the stack so you can focus on your own application code. And even at that level, we’re starting to see security products come out.
Myth 2: Run your usual/average load on-prem and leverage cloud elasticity for on-demand/peak/unusual workloads #
Premise: run your usual workload using static, on-prem hardware which can “burst” to a public cloud provider when you need to handle spikes, perform processing or cope with unusual load requirements.
- You know your “average” workload, and that will not change
Buying hardware to support your baseline workload means you need to fully understand not only your current workload, but also estimate and plan for any changes (growth and shrinkage) that might happen years into the future. This is because cost savings from capital expenditure usually come from spreading the cost over multiple years.
- The on-premise environment will remain competitive when it comes to cost
and efficiency of public cloud
Your own hardware will age and you will need regular refreshes to remain efficient and cost effective in-line with public cloud instance type upgrades and price improvements. It is possible to argue commodity on-premise hardware is cheaper right now, but will that remain true into the future required by the assumption above?
- You’re running a common platform across all environments
This means running a “lowest common denominator” because any supporting services you’re using on-premise may be unavailable on the public cloud. Equally, any public cloud specific services will be unavailable on-premise unless you are using them using a direct connect as part of your normal workload (and if so, why?). As such, you will need to be running and managing your own platform, either written yourself or as an open source/enterprise product (see below).
- You have an auto scaling management platform
This requires writing a lot of code to manage instance lifecycle both on-prem and in the public cloud. It needs to decide when to launch new capacity and shift traffic back and forth as appropriate, as well as shutting down instances when it’s done. Either you write this yourself (at huge development expense) or you use a software platform (perhaps an open source product such as Apache Mesos or an expensive enterprise product such as Rightscale). Both approaches mean (re)architecting your application in a particular way.
- There is a good quality, low latency connection between your on-prem
environment and the public cloud
All the public cloud providers now offer direct connect to the big colo/data centre providers and/or into your own facility. However, you need to be in close proximity to get the best latency and deal with your own link security, encryption, reliability and failover.
Bursting into the cloud remains a great theory but the operational complexity of maintaining multiple environments with the software capability to scale across both means this is actually more difficult than it seems.
Why put all your effort into building your own platform when you can make use of auto scaling APIs and instance spot pricing markets from the public cloud providers?
Myth 3: Running your own hardware gives you more flexibility and control over the components, server utilisation and server design #
Premise: You can design more efficient and and cost effective server clusters by knowing your precise workloads and buying the right hardware. Server utilisation will be improved.
- You can get better utilisation by controlling your own hardware
Cloud providers achieve 65% utilisation vs 15% for the average on-premise deployment. This is through using a reduced number of servers but also with benefits driven by the economies of scale from the large public providers (AWS reports their customers us 84% less power, and utilize a 28% cleaner power mix, for a total reduction in carbon emissions of 88% from using the AWS Cloud instead of operating their own data centers). When choosing a data centre provider you usually have no choice over the energy offerings whereas Google is 100% carbon neutral and AWS has several carbon neutral zones, with commitments to continue improving over time.
- You have more flexibility over component choice
There may have been specific use cases in the past that require certain hardware but the range of instance options for public cloud providers has expanded significantly over the years. Whether that is buying specific storage throughput, ability to trade off availability against cost, specific hardware acceleration or even selecting the specific CPU architecture, the public cloud providers now have it covered. Not only do you get a range to choose from but you also benefit from their supply chain management and purchasing power, so events like the flooding in Thailand don’t affect your ability to obtain parts.
- You can do workload scheduling better
Scheduling is a software problem. It is now just starting to be addressed in open source projects like Apache Mesos but efficient routing around failures, instance upgrades and utilisation optimisation has been part of cloud provider products for a long time. Google has been running containers to achieve this goal for almost 10 years, and is productising this through Kubernetes and Container Engine, as well as their live migration functionality. Other cloud products like DynamoDB and Azure Placement groups offer specific capacity and reliability guarantees, dealing with failover and balancing workloads behind the scenes. These are typically check box configurations, vs building your own custom logic or running complex software yourself.
When the benefit you attempt to derive comes from either economies of scale (e.g. access to component supply chains) or software intelligence (e.g. placement of workloads across compute clusters), chances are that Amazon, Google and/or Azure are able to do this too, better, faster and cheaper. And not just now, with continual improvements into the future.
Again, why do this yourself? Do you really need to be trying to source the best quality, lowest cost disk drives? Do you really need a specific piece of hardware? Can you write better algorithms to schedule your containers than the Google engineers who invented modern container architecture?
Hybrid is just a transition #
But what about direct connect or integration with and support of VMWare and Openstack? Doesn’t that mean the cloud providers support hybrid?
No. These are all just strategic plays by the public cloud providers to get inside your environment, and start the ball rolling towards 100% public cloud. They’re a necessary evil.
Google said it themselves when they announced sponsorship of Openstack:
The first is a move towards the hybrid cloud. Few enterprises can move their entire infrastructure to the public cloud. For most, hybrid deployments will be the norm and OpenStack is emerging as a standard for the on-premises component of these deployments.
Re-read this with my additions:
The first is a move towards the hybrid cloud. Few enterprises can move their entire infrastructure to the public cloud yet. For most, hybrid deployments will be the norm and OpenStack is emerging as an initial standard for the on-premises component of these deployments.
And they’re not just supporting OpenStack, they’re helping specifically with their open source orchestration tool, Kubernetes. Google isn’t being subtle about this. From their announcement:
We believe that the intersection of these trends is important to businesses everywhere. By joining forces with the OpenStack Foundation we hope to add container-native patterns to the toolbelt of enterprise developers, and improve***_interoperability between public and private clouds***.” (emphasis mine).
Amazon and Azure are no different. VPNs, data import devices and gateway products all point in one direction. And with the dismissal of reasons for hybrid, all smart infrastructure is moving to the cloud. Hybrid is just the means to an end.